Kleiner Samba Server

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Ziel dieser Anleitung ist es in kurzer Zeit einen Samba Server für das private Netzwerk zu Hause einzurichten. Als Server eignet sich z.B. ein alter PC, der nicht mehr gebraucht wird. Ich gehe bei der Anleitung davon aus, dass Debian Lenny schon installiert ist ;)

Es werden verschiedene Gruppen und Benutzer angelegt. Alle Gruppen- und Benutzernamen beginnen mit einem "s-" am Anfang. So kann man schneller die lokalen Benutzer von den Samba-Benutzer unterscheiden. Die Samba-Benutzer haben auf dem Server außer Samba nichts zu suchen.

Es werden verschiedene Freigaben eingerichtet. Auf die Freigabe freigabe können alle Samba-Benutzer zugreifen. Auf die Freigabe freigabe-gruppe1 können nur Samba-Benutzer zugreifen, die sich in der Gruppe s-gruppe1 befinden. Und auch die Gruppe s-gruppe2 hat ihre eigene Freigabe freigabe-gruppe2 auf die nur sie zugreifen können.

Außerdem hat jeder Samba-Benutzer noch sein persönliches Verzeichnis. (z.B. /home/s-benutzer1)

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Benutzer und Gruppen anlegen

Als erstes legen wir die Gruppen und die Benutzer an:

groupadd s-netz
groupadd s-gruppe1
groupadd s-gruppe2
useradd -m -g s-netz -G s-gruppe1 -s /bin/false s-benutzer1
useradd -m -g s-netz -G s-gruppe2 -s /bin/false s-benutzer2

Verzeichnisse für die Freigaben anlegen

Danach können wir die Verzeichnisse anlegen, die als Samba Freigaben dienen sollen:

mkdir /srv/samba
cd /srv/samba
mkdir {freigabe,freigabe-gruppe1,freigabe-gruppe2}
chmod 1770 {freigabe,freigabe-gruppe1,freigabe-gruppe2}
chgrp s-netz freigabe
chgrp s-gruppe1 freigabe-gruppe1
chgrp s-gruppe2 freigabe-gruppe2

Installation

Jetzt wird es Zeit für den eigentlichen Samba Server:

aptitude install samba

Bei der Installation werden wir nach der Arbeitsgruppe gefragt. Also geben wir WORKGROUP ein. Aber das lässt sich später auch noch ändern.

Soll smb.conf so abgeändert werden, dass per DHCP angebotene WINS-Einstellungen verwendet werden?

<Nein> und ENTER drücken

Damit sich die Benutzer am Samba Server anmelden können, müssen noch Passwörter vergeben werden. Da die Benutzer vor der Installation vom Samba Server schon angelegt worden sind, ist das Parameter "-a" überflüssig aber stört auch nicht weiter.

smbpasswd -a s-benutzer1
smbpasswd -a s-benutzer2

Konfiguration

Alle Samba Einstellungen werden in der Datei /etc/samba/smb.conf gespeichert. Darum editieren wir diese:

nano /etc/samba/smb.conf

Unter dem Bereich "[homes]" können wir "read only" auf "no" setzen, sodass die Samba Benutzer auch in ihren persönlichen Verzeichnissen schreiben dürfen. Hier ist ein Auszug der Datei smb.conf:

[homes]
   comment = Home Directories
   browseable = no

# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change the
# next parameter to 'no' if you want to be able to write to them.
   read only = no

Die Konfiguration der Freigaben können wir am Ende der smb.conf hinzufügen:

[freigabe]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-netz
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750

[freigabe-gruppe1]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe-gruppe1
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-gruppe1
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750

[freigabe-gruppe2]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe-gruppe2
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-gruppe2
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750

Hinweise: Wenn der Benutzer s-benutzer1 unter freigabe einen Ordner erstellt, kann unterhalb diesem Ordner der Benutzer s-benutzer2 keine neuen Ordner oder Dateien anlegen. Falls das gewünscht ist, muss der directory mode Wert auf 770 geändert werden.

Außerdem können nur die Besitzer ihre angelegten Dateien und Ordner bearbeiten und wieder löschen.

Konfiguration überprüfen

Am besten überprüfen wir die Samba Konfiguration noch auf Fehler:

testparm

In unseren Beispiel beschwert sich testparm über zu lange Namen der Freigaben. Hier ein gekürzter Auszug:

WARNING: You have some share names that are longer than 12 characters.
These may not be accessible to some older clients.
(Eg. Windows9x, WindowsMe, and smbclient prior to Samba 3.0.)

Wenn aber zum Beispiel auf den Clients das Betriebssystem Windows XP installiert ist, kann man diese Warnung ignorieren.

Samba Server neu starten

Als letztes starten wir den Samba Server neu:

/etc/init.d/samba restart

Abschluss

Fertig! Der Samba Server ist einsatzbereit.

Anhang

Die komplette smb.conf gibt es hier:

#
# Sample configuration file for the Samba suite for Debian GNU/Linux.
#
#
# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options most of which 
# are not shown in this example
#
# Some options that are often worth tuning have been included as
# commented-out examples in this file.
#  - When such options are commented with ";", the proposed setting
#    differs from the default Samba behaviour
#  - When commented with "#", the proposed setting is the default
#    behaviour of Samba but the option is considered important
#    enough to be mentioned here
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command
# "testparm" to check that you have not made any basic syntactic 
# errors. 
# A well-established practice is to name the original file
# "smb.conf.master" and create the "real" config file with
# testparm -s smb.conf.master >smb.conf
# This minimizes the size of the really used smb.conf file
# which, according to the Samba Team, impacts performance
# However, use this with caution if your smb.conf file contains nested
# "include" statements. See Debian bug #483187 for a case
# where using a master file is not a good idea.
#

#======================= Global Settings =======================

[global]

## Browsing/Identification ###

# Change this to the workgroup/NT-domain name your Samba server will part of
   workgroup = WORKGROUP

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
   server string = %h server

# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable its WINS Server
#   wins support = no

# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
# Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
;   wins server = w.x.y.z

# This will prevent nmbd to search for NetBIOS names through DNS.
   dns proxy = no

# What naming service and in what order should we use to resolve host names
# to IP addresses
;   name resolve order = lmhosts host wins bcast

#### Networking ####

# The specific set of interfaces / networks to bind to
# This can be either the interface name or an IP address/netmask;
# interface names are normally preferred
;   interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0

# Only bind to the named interfaces and/or networks; you must use the
# 'interfaces' option above to use this.
# It is recommended that you enable this feature if your Samba machine is
# not protected by a firewall or is a firewall itself.  However, this
# option cannot handle dynamic or non-broadcast interfaces correctly.
;   bind interfaces only = yes



#### Debugging/Accounting ####

# This tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
   log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m

# Cap the size of the individual log files (in KiB).
   max log size = 1000

# If you want Samba to only log through syslog then set the following
# parameter to 'yes'.
#   syslog only = no

# We want Samba to log a minimum amount of information to syslog. Everything
# should go to /var/log/samba/log.{smbd,nmbd} instead. If you want to log
# through syslog you should set the following parameter to something higher.
   syslog = 0

# Do something sensible when Samba crashes: mail the admin a backtrace
   panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d


####### Authentication #######

# "security = user" is always a good idea. This will require a Unix account
# in this server for every user accessing the server. See
# /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/ServerType.html
# in the samba-doc package for details.
#   security = user

# You may wish to use password encryption.  See the section on
# 'encrypt passwords' in the smb.conf(5) manpage before enabling.
   encrypt passwords = true

# If you are using encrypted passwords, Samba will need to know what
# password database type you are using.  
   passdb backend = tdbsam

   obey pam restrictions = yes

# This boolean parameter controls whether Samba attempts to sync the Unix
# password with the SMB password when the encrypted SMB password in the
# passdb is changed.
   unix password sync = yes

# For Unix password sync to work on a Debian GNU/Linux system, the following
# parameters must be set (thanks to Ian Kahan <<kahan@informatik.tu-muenchen.de> for
# sending the correct chat script for the passwd program in Debian Sarge).
   passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
   passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* .

# This boolean controls whether PAM will be used for password changes
# when requested by an SMB client instead of the program listed in
# 'passwd program'. The default is 'no'.
   pam password change = yes

########## Domains ###########

# Is this machine able to authenticate users. Both PDC and BDC
# must have this setting enabled. If you are the BDC you must
# change the 'domain master' setting to no
#
;   domain logons = yes
#
# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the location of the user's profile directory
# from the client point of view)
# The following required a [profiles] share to be setup on the
# samba server (see below)
;   logon path = \\%N\profiles\%U
# Another common choice is storing the profile in the user's home directory
# (this is Samba's default)
#   logon path = \\%N\%U\profile

# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the location of a user's home directory (from the client
# point of view)
;   logon drive = H:
#   logon home = \\%N\%U

# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the script to run during logon. The script must be stored
# in the [netlogon] share
# NOTE: Must be store in 'DOS' file format convention
;   logon script = logon.cmd

# This allows Unix users to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR
# RPC pipe.  The example command creates a user account with a disabled Unix
# password; please adapt to your needs
; add user script = /usr/sbin/adduser --quiet --disabled-password --gecos "" %u

# This allows machine accounts to be created on the domain controller via the 
# SAMR RPC pipe.  
# The following assumes a "machines" group exists on the system
; add machine script  = /usr/sbin/useradd -g machines -c "%u machine account" -d /var/lib/samba -s /bin/false %u

# This allows Unix groups to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR
# RPC pipe.  
; add group script = /usr/sbin/addgroup --force-badname %g

########## Printing ##########

# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
#   load printers = yes

# lpr(ng) printing. You may wish to override the location of the
# printcap file
;   printing = bsd
;   printcap name = /etc/printcap

# CUPS printing.  See also the cupsaddsmb(8) manpage in the
# cupsys-client package.
;   printing = cups
;   printcap name = cups

############ Misc ############

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;   include = /home/samba/etc/smb.conf.%m

# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See smb.conf(5) and /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/speed.html
# for details
# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:
#         SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
#   socket options = TCP_NODELAY

# The following parameter is useful only if you have the linpopup package
# installed. The samba maintainer and the linpopup maintainer are
# working to ease installation and configuration of linpopup and samba.
;   message command = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/linpopup "%f" "%m" %s; rm %s' &

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. If this
# machine will be configured as a BDC (a secondary logon server), you
# must set this to 'no'; otherwise, the default behavior is recommended.
#   domain master = auto

# Some defaults for winbind (make sure you're not using the ranges
# for something else.)
;   idmap uid = 10000-20000
;   idmap gid = 10000-20000
;   template shell = /bin/bash

# The following was the default behaviour in sarge,
# but samba upstream reverted the default because it might induce
# performance issues in large organizations.
# See Debian bug #368251 for some of the consequences of *not*
# having this setting and smb.conf(5) for details.
;   winbind enum groups = yes
;   winbind enum users = yes

# Setup usershare options to enable non-root users to share folders
# with the net usershare command.

# Maximum number of usershare. 0 (default) means that usershare is disabled.
;   usershare max shares = 100

#======================= Share Definitions =======================

[homes]
   comment = Home Directories
   browseable = no

# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change the
# next parameter to 'no' if you want to be able to write to them.
   read only = no

# File creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create files with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
   create mask = 0700

# Directory creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create dirs. with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
   directory mask = 0700

# By default, \\server\username shares can be connected to by anyone
# with access to the samba server.
# The following parameter makes sure that only "username" can connect
# to \\server\username
# This might need tweaking when using external authentication schemes
   valid users = %S

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
;[netlogon]
;   comment = Network Logon Service
;   path = /home/samba/netlogon
;   guest ok = yes
;   read only = yes
;   share modes = no

# Un-comment the following and create the profiles directory to store
# users profiles (see the "logon path" option above)
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
# The path below should be writable by all users so that their
# profile directory may be created the first time they log on
;[profiles]
;   comment = Users profiles
;   path = /home/samba/profiles
;   guest ok = no
;   browseable = no
;   create mask = 0600
;   directory mask = 0700

[printers]
   comment = All Printers
   browseable = no
   path = /var/spool/samba
   printable = yes
   guest ok = no
   read only = yes
   create mask = 0700

# Windows clients look for this share name as a source of downloadable
# printer drivers
[print$]
   comment = Printer Drivers
   path = /var/lib/samba/printers
   browseable = yes
   read only = yes
   guest ok = no
# Uncomment to allow remote administration of Windows print drivers.
# You may need to replace 'lpadmin' with the name of the group your
# admin users are members of.
# Please note that you also need to set appropriate Unix permissions
# to the drivers directory for these users to have write rights in it
;   write list = root, @lpadmin

# A sample share for sharing your CD-ROM with others.
;[cdrom]
;   comment = Samba server's CD-ROM
;   read only = yes
;   locking = no
;   path = /cdrom
;   guest ok = yes

# The next two parameters show how to auto-mount a CD-ROM when the
#	cdrom share is accesed. For this to work /etc/fstab must contain
#	an entry like this:
#
#       /dev/scd0   /cdrom  iso9660 defaults,noauto,ro,user   0 0
#
# The CD-ROM gets unmounted automatically after the connection to the
#
# If you don't want to use auto-mounting/unmounting make sure the CD
#	is mounted on /cdrom
#
;   preexec = /bin/mount /cdrom
;   postexec = /bin/umount /cdrom

[freigabe]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-netz
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750

[freigabe-gruppe1]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe-gruppe1
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-gruppe1
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750

[freigabe-gruppe2]
path = /srv/samba/freigabe-gruppe2
writeable = yes
valid users = @s-gruppe2
locking = yes
create mode = 0640
directory mode = 0750
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